Ader's Duiker (Cephalophus adersi)
Mohamed bin Zayed Species project number 0925562
The forests of Zanzibar are part of East African Coastal Forests Ecoregion, globally acknowledged by Conservation International as one of the 200 global biodiversity hot spots known as East African Arc Mountain. These particularly, Ngezi-Vumawimbi Nature Forest Reserve, Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Kiwengwa-Pongwe Forest Reserve and the coastal thickets of the eastern parts of Unguja and Pemba islands.
Previously, effort to conserve natural forest and their flora and fauna has focused on Jozani and Ngezi both of which include relics of original forest. More areas with conservation potential, such as Kiwengwa-Pongwe, Muyuni-Mtende wider area, Msitu Mkuu, Ras Kiuyu and Masingini have now becoming the target of forest sector. These areas play significant role in conservation of ground water, soil, flora and fauna (including rare and endemic) and cultural values. All forest and wildlife matters in Zanzibar Islands are administered by Department of Commercial Crops, Fruits and Forestry (DCCFF). The Legal instruments that support development of forest resources and envirnmnetal management in Zanzibar include: National Forest Policy (1995), Forest Resource Conservation and Management Act No. 10 of 1996, Forest Resources Management Plan for Zanzibar (2009-2020), Enviromental Policy of 1992 and Environmental Management for Sustainable Development Act No 2 of 1996 and Community Forest Management Agreements (CoFMAs).
Mission statement: It shall be the mission of the DCCFF to “increase resources capacity and effectively delivery”.
Objectives of Organisation: The general goal of the organisation is based on the Principle of Sustainability and Welfare of the people based on the National Forest Policy of 1995, and it states that: “Protect, conserve, and develop forest resources for the social, economic and environmental benefit for present and future generations of the people of Zanzibar”
Social goal: Strengthen the role of forestry in alleviating poverty and increase equity in resource management and utilization.
Economic goal: Strengthen the role of forest resources in promoting economic development, in meeting demand for forest product, in creating income and increase national revenues and efficiency.
Environmental goal: Protect and conserve forest resources including wildlife and flora, and enhance the role of forest resources in maintaining soil and water conservation and other environmental benefits.
Geographical area it covers:
Since the organisation is responsible for the conservation and management of forest resources in Zanzibar, it covers the whole of Zanzibar Islands (i.e. Unguja and Pemba Islands), including small islets. Forestry resources management is not a Union matter, i.e. does not fall under the adminitration of United Republic of Tanzania.
Target species/habitats it works:
The organisation works to promote the conservation and management of all wildife spcies with focus on flagship species of Aders’ duiker, Pemba blue duiker, Zanzibar Red Colobus Monkey, Pemba Flying Fox, and Fischer’s Turaco, omong others. On plants, all Mangrove plant species are considered as protected trees; the organisation works to ensure are well conserved and managed. Habitats it works: the organisation works at Coral rag forest ecosystem, deep soiled ecosystem and Mangrove Forest ecosystem; large part of which are in protected areas and some in community conservation area
Ader's duiker Conservation Status:
Ader's duiker (semi-endemic to Zanzibar) is described as critical and vulnerable species. Its population was estimated to be less than 600±45 individuals in 1999 compared to 2,000 and 5,000 individuals in 1996 and 1985 respectively. This indicates a decrease of 87.7% for the last 17years, i.e. since last survey (DCCFF, 2009). Some individuals have been translocated in private conservation areas, for instance in Chumbe and Mnemba Islands and at Zanzibar Park in Unguja Island; their population growth is somewhat encouraging. There is slight recovery of Ader's duiker population in an established Community Forest Conservation area, i.e. there are frequent sightings of the animals, yet more efforts required.
Pemba blue duiker conservation status:
This species is endemic to Pemba Island and Zanzibar as whole. It has undergone limited surveys, so it becoming hard to guess its population size and distribution. However, the species is threatened by feral dogs within protected areas of Ngezi and Msitu Mkuu Forest Reserves. Outside these areas, deforestation is a primary factor.
Importance of duikers associated habitats:
-Coral rag forests (where Duikers inhabit) form a complex ecosystem with high biodiversity values of floral and others faunal species,
-Direct habitat loss and fragmentation of the remaining forest ecosystems represent a major challenge for the maintenance of the biodiversity,
-Livelihood needs of the local communities contribute significantly to the deforestation and degradation of the forests ecosystem
-Shifting cultivation using slash and burn approach form the major part of farming system in Zanzibar hence reduces the size and quality of the forest areas.
Major activities that project supported
This one year project, designed to complement the DCCFF efforts in conservation of Zanzibar biodiversity and focused only on two species: Ader's duiker and Pemba blue duiker: Major activities supported by the project include:
•Village meetings to sensitise wider community on conservation of Ader's duiker and Pemba blue duiker
•Production of educational and promotional materials for conservation the target species (T-shits and stickers)
•Organise village meetings to facilitate revision of 12 village wildlife by-laws
•Conduct training for selected members of the community conservation groups on techniques in law enforcement, resource monitoring and field report writing
•Build sanctuary to protect the Ader's duiker at Mtende village
•Conduct survey to examine abundance and distribution of Pemba blue duiker including analysis of threats and control
•Support income generating activities to Conservation committee to improve their livelihoods
•Control feral dogs within Ngezi and Msitu Mkuu forest reserves using appropriate mechanisms
- Wildlife conservation awareness program
• At least three meetings were done with Department of commercial Crops, Fruits and Forestry and District authorities on the project interventions
• Six conservation awareness meetings on wildlife conservation were done for village communities at Mjini Wingwi, Kwale, Kilindini/Kandaani, and Chokaningayo around Msitu Mkuu Forest Reserve and Kangagani and Vitongoji in Pemba blue duiker coral rag forests areas. At least 96 community members participated in those meetings.
• 300 stickers printed and distributed to the public
• 150 T-shirt printed and distributed to the public
• One dram developed
• One article developed and printed
• One slogan for Mtende Ader's Sanctuary designed and placed
• Radio was used to deliver project activities especially during training program
- Livelihood support
i. 15 modern beehives purchased for Kangagani (10) and Vitongoji (5) villages
ii. 10 Beehives purchased for Mtende Conservation Committee
• Tree planting
i. Total of 5,000 Casuarina seedlings were purchased and distributed to community conservation committees of Mjini Wingwi and Vitongoji. Each received 2,500 seedlings. They did also receive 10 hoes each.
i. At least four training workshops on Law enforcement and wildlife monitoring for community representatives around Kiwengwa-Pongwe Forest Reserve, Jozani National Park including Wider Area - south of Jozani National Park were done. 119 participants attended the trainings
ii. One combined training on law enforcement and awareness rising was done for representatives from village conservation committees, forest gourds from Ngezi-Vumawimbi Nature Forest Reserve District forest guards. 45 participants attended the training,
iii. One woodlot management trainings done Vitongji conservation committees. 22 participants attended the training
iv. One beekeeping management trainings done for Kangagani conservation committees. 22 participants attende the training
- Camera trapping and boundary mapping of Msitu Mkuu Forest Reserve
i. Two sessions on camera trappings at Msitu Mkuu FR were done. The first did not yield but the second one provide the first photos of Pemba blue duiker
ii. Collections of GPS points around the boundaries of Msitu Mkuu FR help to digitized and produce the first digitized map of this forest reserve.
- Pemba blue duiker survey
• The reconnaissance survey to assess the distribution and abundance of Pemba blue duiker was done in six forest areas known to habour the animal around Pemba Island. These include: Msitu Mkuu Forest Reserve, Ngezi-Vumawimbi Nature Forest Reserve, Kangagani Forest, Vitongoji Forest, Fundo Island and Ras Kiuyu Forest Reserve.
• Results indicate that only three of the six areas surveyed found to have Pemba blue duikers. These are: Msitu Mkuu Forest Reserve, Vitongoji and Kangagani forest areas. Results based on the presence of dung pallets of the animals.
• Dung pallets count from six transect lines surveyed, two from each forest areas of Msitu Mkuu FR, Vitongoji and Kangagani obtained 150, 80 and 63 dung pallets respectively. furthermore, analysis show dung piles per hectares is 138 in Mstu Mkuu, 99 in Vitongoji Forest and 67 in Kangagani Forest.
- Mtende Ader's Sanctuary
• Project planned to establish Ader's duiker sanctuary at Mtende Community Forest area, where population of Ader's duiker is relatively good compared to the forests. Live fence was established but did not continue further due to a new proposal aiming developing that forest into captive breeding, and will use the galvanized wire to fence the area. However, a slogan indicating the presence of the sanctuary and directing to the site designed and placed by the project.
Project 0925562 location - Tanzania, Africa