Common Birdwing (Troides helena)
Mohamed bin Zayed Species project number 13057859
Conservation Status of the Common Birdwing Troides helena (Linnaeus, 1758) on Karst of Gunungsewu, Gunungkidul District, Special Province of Yogyakarta
Butterflies have a role in ecosystem as pollinator in maintaining the ecological balance of nature. They are very sensitive because it depends on where he pollinating plants. If the plant is increasingly rare due to global warming, the number of butterflies was certainly reduced, include on karst ecosystem. Several types of exotic and rare butterfly such as the common birdwing Troides helena that could found in karst of Gunungsewu as protected animal by Government Regulation No. 7/1999, listed in Appendix II CITES, IUCN Red List status is no entry (as at 2008). Karst ecosystem has been seriously damaged by human activities such as maining and the factors of nature itself. The vulnerabilities arise due to specific patterns of adaptation and possible adaptation process has reached the climax stage. When environmental conditions change, it is feared some kind of flora and fauna can not adapt causing some species to extinction, include the common birdwing Troides helena and their host plant/foodplant (Aristolochia spp). Limited of reference and data collection in Gunungkidul District of current status encouraged to gather data and will useful to support management plan of karst in the future and the wildlife, especially the common birdwing Troides helena and foodplant
The target location to support the target species are Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus areas that part of Gunungsewu karst of Gunungkidul District, Special Province of Yogyakarta -INDONESIA. Gunungkidul District is famous for its karst area and it is one of the most unusual tropical karst area in the world with very high geological values and biodiversity and has approximately 807 KM2 of karst (53% from total area of Gunungkidul District). Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus sub-districts have potential karst area as hydrological and ecological function and already listed in spatial planning (District Regulation No.6/2011) that establishment of protected areas strategy function and increased preservation of the environment that is able to adapt to the impacts of disaster risk include maintaining and preserving the unique ecosystem and endokarst/eksokarst formations and synchronise of geological protected area management as the development of science, education and tourism world heritage.
a) To establish of database through survey of population and distribution of common birdwing Troides helena (Linnaeus, 1758) on target location of Gunungsewu karst in Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus- Gunungkidul District,
b) To establish of database through survey of distribution of important foodplant/host plant on target location of Gunungsewu karst in Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus- Gunungkidul District;
c) To strengthen awareness at community and local government levels in Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus at Gunungkidul District.
Activities related on the research below :
a. Preparation & Preliminary
b. Field Survey
c. Public Awareness
Preparation and Preliminary
1. Socialization programs “Conservation Status of the Common Birdwing Troides helena (Linnaeus, 1758) on Karst of Gunungsewu, Gunungkidul District, Special Province of Yogyakarta” held in Yogyakarta held at February, 26 2014 and attended by core team and supported by Nature Lover Group of Gunungkidul and Kanopi Indonesia Foundation. In this event presented about this program to be conducted until next 6 months
2. Field Socialization and Team Coordination in Gunungkidul District.
The activities conducted on March 8, 2014 and attended by core team and supporting team in Gunungkidul Distric of Yogyakarta Province. Agustinus Wijayanto as team leader shared the project background, time frame, team, etc. Research area will be focused in three Sub-districts (Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus). In that activity also agreed about field survey and will be conducted in March and April 2014 (based on the weather condition). That activity included equipments preparation and team formation. Team in this project focus on the team support maintain
3. Preliminary Field Survey
After conducted socialization and team formation, the next activity is preliminary field survey on early March 2014 that focused in three target areas of Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus with all field team.
In that activity, with funds from MBZ, we expanded potential location to be surveyed that not only three Sub-districs of Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus, but also at Ponjong, Paliyan, Karangmojo, Semin, Nglipar, Panggang, Tanjungsari, Semanu, Girisubo, Playen, Purwosari, and Wonosari Sub-districts of Gunungkidul District. Based on the field survey result, we focused in seven areas of research. The seven areas at Patuk, Tepus, Playen, Girisubo, Panggang, Ponjong, and Tanjungsari Sub-districts of Gunungkidul District.
Populations and the spread Troides helena and Aristolochia sp., in Gunungkidul District. The initial plan of data collection in proposal will be conducted in 3 sub-districts of Patuk, Ngawen and Tepus area but eventually expanded to almost all sub-districts in Gunungkidul. From the several districts surveyed, Troides helena can be found in 7 sub-districts namely Patuk, Tepus, Playen, Girisubo, Panggang, Ponjong and Tanjungsari. Most populations are found on the Nglanggeran hill of Patuk sub-district with an average number of 25 individuals were in another location found only 1 individual. Aristolochia sp. as foodpant/host of Troides helena in Nglanggeran only found in the hills with an average population of 22 individuals with a predominance of seedlings.
Population of Troides helena in Gunungkidul District. Most populations are found in Nglanggeran areas with a density of approximately 1 individual per 1 hectare. While in other areas is very little population, Tepus 1 individual per 88 ha, Playen 1 individual per 76 ha, Girisubo 1 individual per 33 ha, Panggang 1 individual per 70 ha, Ponjong 1 individual per 60 ha and Tanjungsari 1 individual per 50 ha. So, that why the research is important to know the distribution and population of Troides helena and based on the survey/research can be conducted discussion with local government how the species and habitat protection are urgent. Target location to pay attention in Nglanggeran as potential arera to be conserved. Troides helena sex composition found in Nglanggeran dominated by males with average ratio of male and female 4:1
Number of Aristolochia sp. as a larval food plant of Troides helena from April to June 2014 has decreased. Inversely proportional with of Troides helena found. Aristolochia sp. often referred to as an herb “betel vine forest” and require another tree as a mooring mast. “Betel herbs” from community perspective have no special benefits even considered pest plants because plants creeping forest / cultivation so that tends to be ignored even killed. Gunungkidul is one location discovery betel herbs in good condition and many betel herbs only in ancient volcanic Nglanggeran. Thus the need for special attention to all of us in terms of preserving the common birdwings of Troides helena butterfly. This location is a massive natural attractions that it is possible to disrupt the existence of plants and butterflies if not managed properly. From the results of data collection is known that the distribution of betel plant is found in forests many paths that might be damaged tourist trampling by tourists is very high.
Population of Troides helena from April to June 2014 has increased, whereas the amount of Aristolochia sp. as foodplant/host has decreased. This happens because with more and more butterflies, the greater the likelihood of the process of mating and eggs / larvae produced more and more that need more feed. The rate of feed requirements of larvae faster than the growth process that ultimately feed the amount of feed has declined even exhausted. When the feed amount of thinning, the number of larvae that managed to become a butterfly will decrease and eventually the number of butterflies will decrease. At the time the number of butterflies decreased, resulting larvae also feed requirements were decreased and the less so the chance of plant growth increases feed so the possibility of increasing the amount of forage plants. From the description above it can be concluded that the number of butterflies in an area will be inversely proportional to the amount of feed crops.
a) Tourism Management and Local Community of ancient volcanic of Nglanggeran, Patuk Sub-district
Discussion and socialization common birdwings to the tour manager about protected butterfly o Troides helena in ancient volcanic Nglanggeran conducted on 25 May and 26 July 2014. From the general discussion of both community and tourism operators in Nglanggeran, they did not know the status of the common bidrwings Troides helena is protected and existence already rare. Based on the results of data collection/field survey is known that the presence of these butterflies and their foodplant are mosty only found in ancient volcanic Nglanggeran. While the ancient volcano itself into the natural attractions which occupies a land mass of Sultan Ground land. With the mass tourist is feared will disturb the existence of the common birdwings Troides helena and feeding areas, so that the role of managers and communities surrounding that area are very necessary to maintain its sustainability.
The management will disseminate any tourist about the common birdwings Troides helena with a medium banners, posters, photos and videos to the visitors that funded by MBZ and supported by Kanopi Indonesia Foundation and Nature Lover Group of Gunungkdidul. So, the visitor will know the existence of the Troides helena and its foodplants as one of the potential in ancient volcanic Nglanggeran and take care of them. In addition, the tour manager is expected to make special rules relating to wildlife and the environment in this tourist area, especially regarding the presence of the Troides helena, like special tracks limited or closed for tourists which is the habitat of Troides helena and Aritolochia sp.
b) Envorinmental Education
Environmental education for elementary school children was held on June 14, 2014 Activities conducted in Elementary School/SDN Nglanggeran and attended by 100 students. In this activity, children are introduced to the butterfly Troides helena especially in the environment around them, ranging from butterfly life cycle, role / benefit butterflies, conservation efforts and the presence of a butterfly. The media used is a photo and video presentation that be more easily understood by children. In general, children are aware of any butterflies around them both its role and its life cycle, but is not aware of any monarch butterflies and their protected status. With the environmental education activities, the children are expected to be aware of the existence of particular butterflies Troides helena so that later took part in the conservation of butterflies. At the end of children's activities are invited to make an origami butterfly. To assist this activity 8 personnels from Kanopi Indonesia Foundation and Nature Lover Group in Gunungkidul & Yogyakarta involved during the process. The students are expected will share/disseminate information about the butterflies to their friends at other schools and surrounding communities.
The other public awareness through bring children into the forest. The introduction of a butterfly done to children on June 29, 2014 in around the rest area Bunder Forest. Children are invited to walk around the river with a picture of a butterfly so they try to match the butterfly encountered with existing photo. Here the children were asked to identify the butterfly and its role in nature so that it will be concerned with the existence of the butterfly. The event ended with making a craft butterfly
Seminar conducted to share the research result of common birdwings Troides helena held on June 24, 2014 in the auditorium of Library and Archives Office of Gunungkidul District supported by Kanopi Indonesia Foundation and Nature Lover Group Gunungkidul. In addition to presentation of research results by Agustinus Wijayanto and Arif Nurmawan, the seminar is also filled speaker of Nature Lover Group-Gunungkidul by Edi Dwi Atmaja and from Nature Conservation Agency-Ministry of Forestry by Kusmardiastuti, S.Hut., MP with the theme of wildlife potential in karst Gunungsewu Yogyakarta. Participats more than 20 persons from Government (Nature Conservation Agency of Yogyakarta-Ministry of Forestry, Forestry and Plantation Services of Gunungkidul District, Library and Archives Office of Gunungkidul District, Planning and Delopment Agency of Gunungkidul,), Highschool (Highschool of SMAN 1 Gunungkidul), Nature Lover Group (PPAGK), NGO (Belantara Indonesia, Rumah Konservasi Indonesia), Community Representative (Nganggeran), and Media (Kabar Handayani and Harian Jogja/Jogja Daily.
From the discussion in this seminar in Gunungkidul known that government agencies have not been aware yet of any potential Troides Helena. So, have not been included yet in the management plan area of Gunungkidul. With this seminar is expected to provide information and research data where Troides helena and its foodplant/host plants and wildlife that are useful to support the karst management plans and wildlife in the karst region of Gunungsewu-Gunungkidul Thus the area management can be more wise and environmentally friendly which ensures the sustainable improvement of people's welfare.
Given the very high potential and critical value Gunungsewu karst region, in 1994 the International Union of Speleology unanimously propose this area as a World Natural Heritage. In addition, on December 6, 2004 Gunung Sewu Karst and Gombong proclaimed as Eco Karst Regions by President, Mr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. And this 2014 Gunungkidul karst areas will be designated by UNESCO as Gunungsewu Geopark. This of course requires a regional conservation measures, particularly Gunungsewu karst region. Whether we realize it or not, the conservation of the karst region can not be separated from the availability of accurate data on the results of the study various aspects and disciplines
d) Media Coverage
The results of research with title : Conservation Status of the Common Birdwing Troides helena (Linnaeus, 1758) on Karst of Gunungsewu, Gunungkidul District, Special Province of Yogyakarta” published through seminars and the media both print and electronic. For print media published by the local newspaper Daily Jogja & Kabar Handayani and while in electronic media through radio RRI Programa 1 Yogyakarta and DAAI TV. Radio broadcasts Yogyakarta RRI Programa 1 Village Gait event broadcast live on July 19, 2014 at 19:30 pm guided by Mr. Sugiman as host. .
Reproting finalize by the team and based on the analisys of research finding. The report distributed to local government in target area, schools, and NGO that concern on the conservation and environmental issues. The report also important to regional/government planning that need more information and data about pontential wildlife and its habitat
Conclusion and Recommendation
1. With funds support from MBZ-Species Conservation, the research conducted not only for three districts (Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus), but we expanded potential location to be surveyed at Ponjong, Paliyan, Karangmojo, Semin, Nglipar, Panggang, Tanjungsari, Semanu, Girisubo, Playen, Purwosari, and Wonosari Sub-districts of Gunungkidul District.
2. Activities of the project included preparation and preliminary survey, field survey, public awareness and reporting.
3. Preliminary conducted in three target areas in Patuk, Ngawen, and Tepus. But base on the result of preliminary survey that need more information at other area. So, we expanded in potential areas of Ponjong, Paliyan, Karangmojo, Semin, Nglipar, Panggang, Tanjungsari, Semanu, Girisubo, Playen, Purwosari, and Wonosari Sub-districts of Gunungkidul District.
4. Fact finding : based on the field survey that the potential location only in seven areas and more specific to be addressed is Nglanggeran-Patuk Sub-distritc.Troides helena status in Gunungkidul rarely in several areas surveyed but secure in one area (Ngalnggeran) but to be aware because of mass tourism in their habitat..
- From the several districts surveyed, Troides helena can be found in 7 sub-districts namely Patuk, Tepus, Playen, Girisubo, Panggang, Ponjong and Tanjungsari. Most populations are found on the Nglanggeran hill of Patuk sub-district with an average number of 25 individuals were in another location found only 1 individual. Aristolochia sp. as foodpant/host of Troides helena in Nglanggeran only found in the hills with an average population of 22 individuals with a predominance of seedlings
- Most populations are found in Nglanggeran areas with a density of approximately 1 individual per 1 hectare. While in other areas is very little population, Tepus 1 individual per 88 ha, Playen 1 individual per 76 ha, Girisubo 1 individual per 33 ha, Panggang 1 individual per 70 ha, Ponjong 1 individual per 60 ha and Tanjungsari 1 individual per 50 ha. So, that why the research is important to know the distribution and population of Troides helena and based on the survey/research can be conducted discussion with local government how the species and habitat protection are urgent. Target location to pay attention in Nglanggeran as potential arera to be conserved
5. After field survey, we conducted public awareness, seminar, and media discussion. Attended by Government (Nature Conservation Agency of Yogyakarta-Ministry of Forestry, Forestry and Plantation Services of Gunungkidul District, Library and Archives Office of Gunungkidul District, Planning and Delopment Agency of Gunungkidul,), Highschool (Highschool of SMAN 1 Gunungkidul), Nature Lover Group (PPAGK), NGO (Belantara Indonesia, Rumah Konservasi Indonesia), Community Representative (Nganggeran), and Media (Kabar Handayani and Harian Jogja/Jogja Daily
6. Reporting of research result disseminate to local government, central government representative, NGO, Schools, community representative at target location surveyed.
1. Data research can be used as document planning by local government of Gunungkidul related on the conservation and development planning
2. Need more pay attention in Nganggeran area that found good condition/habiat of Troides Helena and its foodplant because of mass tourism in Nglanggeran as ancient volcano area. We already discussed with Local Government to develop activity in Nganggeran that more friendly with nature and species conservation issues.
3. Need more research in Nglanggeran related on Troides helena and Aristolochia sp trend and assist local community to protect Troides helena and Aristolochia sp
4. Capacity building to local community and tourism management/operator to conserve Nganggeran area into mind-term village development planning.
Project 13057859 location - Indonesia, Asia